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UK – EU Transition, and UK Civil Aviation Regulations

To access current UK civil aviation regulations, including AMC and GM, CAA regulatory documents, please use this link to UK Regulation. Please note, if you use information and guidance under the Headings below, the references to EU regulations or EU websites in our guidance will not be an accurate information or description of your obligations under UK law. These pages are undergoing reviews and updates.

Heathrow Airport

Heathrow Airport (HAL) is one of the busiest airports in the world, handling over 75 million passengers per year. It is a ‘hub airport’ - one where airlines concentrate passenger traffic and routes to make their network of flights operate more efficiently.

Under the Civil Aviation Act 2012, the CAA regulates Heathrow’s operations because it considers that the airport has substantial market power that justifies detailed economic regulation.

The Passenger Pays

Passengers passing through Heathrow pay a charge. This charge, separate from other taxes and charges such as the Air Passenger Duty, is bundled into airfares and passed on to Heathrow by the airline on behalf of the passenger.

Determining the passenger charge

The charge the passenger pays to use Heathrow is decided by the regulator (the CAA), after consultation with the airport and the airlines, and is currently about £21 per passenger.

Review of the charge

The charge Heathrow levies on each passenger is subject to a regular review, normally every five years. The outcome of the current review, dubbed H7, will likely set a new charge from 2020.

The Consumer Challenge Board

The CCB was established in 2017 by the CAA in partnership with HAL and the Heathrow airline community to strengthen the link between consumer outcomes and priorities and the regulation of HAL for the H7 price control review, in line with the CAA’s statutory duty to consumers(*). The CCB’s role was to act as an independent advisory body (**) to help ensure that HAL’s business planning and approach to Outcomes-Based Regulation (OBR) is driven by a robust understanding of what consumers value.


* Note: Under the Civil Aviation Act 2012, the CAA has a general duty to further the interests of users of consumers regarding the range, availability, continuity, cost and quality of airport operation service.
** Note: The CCB is a non-executive independent group. Members bring senior experience in a wide variety of relevant fields, including consumer representation and advocacy, consumer research, economic and regulatory affairs, competition policy, international airport infrastructure development, and the leadership of consumer facing businesses.

The CCB’s work

During 2017- early 2020, the CCB provided independent scrutiny and challenge to HAL on the consumer research and engagement it undertook to inform its business plan and approach to OBR (outcomes, measures, targets and incentives). It also engaged closely with the airline community and other stakeholders. During this time the CCB delivered a number of outputs, details of which can be found below. These include:

  • Response to HAL's Consumer Research and Engagement Strategy
  • Principles of good consumer engagement
  • Consumer engagement with vulnerable consumers and PRMs
  • The CCB's report on HAL's expansion masterplan
  • A number of challenge logs
  • Report on HAL's Initial Business Plan
Close The CCB’s work

Impact of latest developments

The CAA considers that the Court of Appeal's decision on Heathrow expansion and the severe financial impact of Covid-19 have led to a material change in circumstance in respect of the CCB's future role. Due to the extraordinary circumstances and challenges facing the aviation industry at this time, after due consideration and discussions with the CCB and industry stakeholders the CAA has reached a decision to conclude the CCB's work. The CAA will be exploring alternative approaches in continuing to ensure consumers' interests remains at the heart of its regulatory work for H7, building on the CCB's important work and best regulatory practice and in particular the CCB's report on HAL's Initial Business Plan.

The CAA's recent April 2020 consultation discusses the impact of these developments on its H7 economic regulatory work programme. The CAA is exploring alternative approaches to ensure consumers' interests remain at the heart of its regulatory work in H7 pursuant to its statutory duty to consumers and will set out its views in its June 2020 consultation.

The CAA recognises the CCB's important and valuable contribution to the H7 price control review. The CAA considers the CCB has helped progress cultural change in HAL's approach to consumer engagement and it will be important that this is maintained and built on and the issues identified in the CCB's report on the Initial Business Plan are addressed (to the extent that they remain relevant to the new circumstances that the sector is experiencing). The CCB's excellent work has given the CAA a strong platform to build on in considering how to adapt its regulatory approach to meet the challenges presented by the Court of Appeal's decision on Heathrow expansion and Covid-19. The CAA is clear that consumers remain at the heart of its work in H7. In building on the CCB's work, it is important that HAL continues to understand consumers' evolving priorities and to reflect these in its plans and approach to OBR, which the CAA considers will help further consumers' long-term interests. The CAA is hopeful that a CCB type role can emerge in the future when the industry outlook is more certain.

Close Impact of latest developments

CCB members

Jeff Halliwell, Chair

Jeff's executive career was in CEO/ MD roles with consumer-facing companies such as Fox's Biscuits/ Northern Foods, First Milk, and Bernard Matthews. His background was in consumer marketing roles with leading international businesses such as Mars, and Colgate. He now has a number of non-executive Chair and Non-Executive Director roles, which span private, public, and third sector organisations. Of particular relevance to the CCB, he is Chair of Transport Focus, the consumer watchdog for public transport and England's highways, and Chair of Anglian Water's Customer Engagement Forum, which has a similar brief, in the water sector, to that of the CCB in respect of HAL.

Dr David Holden

David has twenty years' experience of advising at the highest level on the insight and implementation of market research data to solve business problems, having been involved in over 500 such research studies across a wide variety of business areas. He holds a PhD in Transport Economics, specialising in understanding consumer behaviour, priorities and sensitivities to changes in provision of services.

Isabel Liu

Isabel is a transport user champion with long experience investing in transport infrastructure, especially airports. She previously invested in airports in the UK, Asia Pacific, and the Americas while working with leading international airports as an executive and board member. Isabel is currently on the board of Pensions Infrastructure Platform, formed by UK pension schemes to invest in UK infrastructure. She is a board member of Transport Focus, the consumer watchdog for public transport and England's highways.

Trisha McAuley OBE

Trisha is also a member of the CAA Consumer Panel and has outstanding consumer advocacy and engagement experience. She is currently a Non-Executive Director of NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, which is Scotland's largest Health Authority and through this she is Chair of the Glasgow City Health and Social Care Partnership Board. Trisha is a Non-Executive Director of Northern Ireland Water and has also been recently appointed as a member of the ORR Consumer Panel. Based in Scotland, Trisha brings an important perspective from outside of the South East of the UK.

Jayne Scott

Jayne brings excellent experience of a variety of regulated sectors. She is currently a panel member of the Competition and Markets Authority, a Non-Executive Director of the Marine Management Association, Chair of the Audit Committee of the Registers of Scotland and also of the Private Healthcare Information Network. She is a former Non-Executive Director and Chair of the Audit Committee at Ofgem and a former member of the Audit Committee for the Department of Energy and Climate Change. Based in Perth, Scotland, Jayne also brings a perspective from outside the South East.

Claire Whyley

Claire has extensive consumer advocacy and engagement experience. She is currently a member of a number of bodies including: the Ofgem Stakeholder Engagement and Consumer Vulnerability Panel; the Finance and Leasing Association Disciplinary Panel; the Advertising Advisory Committee; and the Money Advice Trust Board. She has recently been appointed to the Office of Rail and Road (ORR) Consumer Panel and is also a member of the CAA's Consumer Panel - bringing specific aviation knowledge and experience to the role.

Close CCB members

Meeting summaries

2020

Date Organisation Topic CCB attendance
10 Jan CCB The CCB met to discuss the CCB Report on HAL's Initial Business Plan JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW
13 Jan HAL Constructive Engagement Introductory Session JH, JS, CW, IL, DH
14 Jan HAL Constructive Engagement Introductory Session JH, JS, CW, IL, DH
20 Jan HAL Constructive Engagement Introductory Session JH, IL, DH
21 Jan HAL Constructive Engagement Introductory Session JH
27 Jan CCB The CCB met to discuss the structure of their Report on HAL's IBP JH, JS, IL, CW, DH
28 Jan CAA JH met with Freya Whiteman of the CAA JH
30 Jan HAL JH met with the HAL Board JH
10 Feb HAL The CCB met with HAL to discuss the First Draft of the CCB's Report on the IBP JH, IL, DH, CW, TM
10 Feb HAL CE Workstream - Outcomes, measures, targets and incentives JH, IL, DH
11 Feb HAL JH and IL met with the HAL Executive Committee JH, IL

2019

Date Organisation Topic CCB attendance
07 Jan HAL CCB updated the LACC on the Challenge Log, Version 4 JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW
09 Jan CAA JH and IL attended a Heathrow stakeholder meeting with the CAA Board JH, IL
21 Jan HAL CCB met with HAL to discuss current status of Consumer Engagement, strategy feedback and principles of incentives JH, IL, DH, TM, CW
30 Jan HAL JH met with the HAL Board JH
04 Feb CAA CCB met with CAA to discuss the HAL/airline commercial deal for iH7  
18 Feb HAL

Current Status of Consumer Engagement

Consumer Engagement Strategy feedback (Horizon quarterly report and Airport Choice brief)

Surface AccessJH
JH, JS, CW
21 Feb CAA JH met with Beth Corbould of the CAA JH
04 March Daly's wine Bar CCB met to work on Challenge Log, Version 5 JH, JS, CW, DH, IL, TMC
18 March HAL Current Status of Consumer Engagement
WTP Aggregate Benefits Validation & CBA Update
Surface Access - update on Strategy & Access charging research
Part 2 Synthesis
Expansion
JH, JS, CW, DH, IL, TMC
18 March HAL JH met with HAL Customer Director, Jason Knight JH
01 April HAL CCB met to work on Challenge Log, Version 5 JS, CW, DH, IL, TMc
15 April HAL Current Status of Consumer Engagement (Best Airport Service - parts 1 & 2, Operational Resilience Brief)
Part 2 Synthesis Results
Surface Access Charge
Expansion - outline of June consultation
Expansion - Heathrow feedback on CCB report on expansion
Future agenda & washup on previous meetings actions
JH, JS, CW, DH, IL, TMC
28 April HAL CCB met with HAL to discuss Arrivals Consolidation, H7 Choices Research and Preferred Masterplan JH, IL, JS, CW
07 May BA CCB met with British Airways to discuss expansion JH, IL, DH, TM, JS, CW
14 May HAL

JH met with HAL Executive Board where he took them verbally through the key points of the Challenge Log, Version 5. It was a good and constructive discussion. It was noted that the work of the CCB is appreciated by HAL, and Emma Gilthorpe specifically asked JH to pass on HAL's thanks to all CCB members.

JH
15 May CAA

JH met with Beth Corbould of the CAA to discuss the final version of the Challenge Log Version 5.

JH
20 May HAL

JH met with John Holland Kaye prior to the CCB meeting to discuss the Challenge Log Version 5 as he was out of the country at the time of the Executive Committee meeting on the 14th.

JH
20 May HAL CCB met with HAL to discuss Surface Access Consolidation of Insights, Status of Consumer Engagement and How Consumer Engagement Drives the Business Plan JH, IL, DH, TM, JS, CW
20 May HAL

Following the CCB meeting JH met with Paul Smith of CAA to discuss the Challenge Log Version 5

JH
05 August HAL JH met with the DfT where they discussed carbon emissions. JH
06 August CAA The CCB met with the CAA for an update JH, IL, DH, TMc
09 August CAA

JH meeting with Beth Corbould for CAA catch-up

JH
19 August HAL CCB met with HAL to discuss: The Summary Plan, Principles for Incentives Methodology, Operational Resilience, Surface Access and the Consumer Engagement Plan JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW
09 Sept CAA JH met with HAL Executive Committee JH
10 Sept HAL JH met with Jenny Wilmott of the Consumer Challenge Board JH
16 Sept CAA CCB met with HAL to discuss: Building a consumer-focused business plan; Development of outcomes, measures, targets & incentives and Consumer engagement feedback findings and proposals JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW
16 Sept HAL JH is meeting with BA and VAA JH
05 Oct HAL JH and IL met with HAL Executive Committee JH, IL
21 Oct HAL JH met with Andrew McMillan JH
21 Oct CCB met with HAL to discuss: Building a consumer-focused business plan; Development of outcomes, measures, targets & incentives and Consumer, Surface Access and Consumer Engagement findings and proposals JH, DH, JS, TM, CW
12 Nov BA CCB met with BA at their offices at BA Waterside to discuss expansion JH, IL, JS, TM, CW
13 Nov CAA JH met with FW of the CAA JH
18 Nov HAL JH met with Andrew McMillan and John Holland-Kaye to discuss Constructive Engagement and the Initial Business Plan JH
18 Nov HAL CCB met with HAL to discuss: Building a consumer-focused business plan; Development of outcomes, measures, targets & incentives and Consumer, Generation Z and Choices Research JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW
27 Nov HAL JH met with the HAL Board JH
02 Dec CAA CCB with CAA to discuss role of CCB and TORs JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW
03 Dec HAL JH met with HAL Executive Committee JH

2018

Date Organisation Topic CCB attendance
8 Jan CAA Update on the consultation. Information about the CAA's role in resilience, the history of it, why we care, highlights from CAA previous research. JH, IL, DH, TM, CW, JS, AB
15 Jan HAL Literature Review, Service Proposition and Signatures, Expansion, Forward Plan of Activity. HAL and CCB discuss CCB issue log. JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW, AB
25 Jan HAAG Introduce role and work of CCB and HAAG. JH
25 Jan CAA CAA's legislative duties in respect of PRMs JH
25 Jan BA Update on CCB work JH
1 Feb HAL HAL Expansion and overview of DCO process JH
5 Feb easyJet Overview of easyJet, easyJet's consumer research and the company's perspective on H7 JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW, AB
06 Feb HAL HAL Executive Committee to discuss Challenge Log JH
09 Feb Consumer Challenge Board Introduction to new Chair JH
19 Feb CAA CCB talked to CAA about PRM's JH, IL, JS, TM, CW, AB
22 Feb HAL Passenger Sustainability Research - Focus Groups IL
05 Mar HAL Discuss draft Interim report and Challenge Log JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW, AB
19 Mar BA

BA's view on:

1. Development priorities for H7 and the consumer engagement evidence to support BA's priorities.

2. Aspects of SQRB BA see as important to go forward into H7 and what consumer engagement evidence BA have in support.

3. Discuss draft Interim report and Challenge Log

4. Views on approaches to R3, including affordability getting defined as keeping charges flat and how that might be achieved, and alternative developers.

5. Resilience - views on how operational changes or investment can improve resilience.

JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW
29 Mar HAL Discussion on Surface Access IL, JH
09 Apr LACC CCB update the LACC on progress JH, IL, DH, TM, AB
09 Apr HAL Current Status of Research & Engagement, Consumer Research & Engagement Strategy and Sustainability JH, IL, DH, TM, AB
23 April CAA Update on consultation and S16 JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW
23 April HAGG and HAL Consumer engagement on vulnerable passenger JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW
23 April HAL Current Status of Research & Engagement and Business planning, Passenger Insight community - opportunity to input into planned topics, Feedback on synthesis brief and experiments and Principles of cost benefit analysis JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW
24 April HAAG Update on CCB and HAAG Activity JH
26 April HAL / Airlines Automation Event JS
21 May HAL Current Status of Research & Engagement, Work package feedback (experiments, sustainability results) and airport charges JH, IL, DH, TM, CW, AB
21 May HAL Surface Access Discussion JH, IL
22 May HAL Vulnerable Consumers Discussion CW
24 May HAL HAL Board to discuss progress since CCB interim report JH
4 June HAL WTP Draft Report and a session on the process the expansion team has taken to develop the strategic requirements and evaluation of the masterplan JH, IL, DH, JS, CW, AB
18 June HAL Current status of engagement plan, Sustainability Passenger Engagement Research, Synthesis of insights proposal, Draft WTP report, Draft Principles of outcomes and measures and Draft Consumer Engagement Strategy JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW, AB
2 Jul CAA Introduction to new CEO of the CAA. JH, IL, DH, JS, CW, AB
2 Jul HAL Expansion and Vulnerable Consumers JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW, AB
3 Jul HAL Exec Update on CCB progress JH
16 Jul HAL Willingness to Pay and Expansion JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW, AB
19 Jul HAL Discussed updates to CCB Challenge Log JH
27 Jul CAA Consumer Panel Raise concerns with consumer panel that are outside of the CCB remit JH
30 Jul DfT Introduction to CCB and update on progress JH
6 Aug LACC Discussed updates to CCB Challenge Log, consumer research and engagement, masterplanning, outcome based regulation and constructive engagement JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, AB
20 Aug HAL Airline insight report, Western rail and Operational Resilience and Current status of work package feedback. JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW, AB
3 Sep HAL Horizon Quarterly report, Airline business partner survey, Masterplan explained and Current status of work package feedback. JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW
5 Sep HAL Willingness to Pay DH
17 Sep HAL Synthesis of insights, customer insight to inform arrivals and Current status of work package feedback.

IL, DH, JS, TM, CW, AB

8 Oct HAL

Preliminary outcomes and measures, expansion workshops results and actions and Current status of work package feedback.

JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW
9 Oct Heathrow Community Engagement Board (HCEB) Introduction to CCB and update on progress JH
5 Nov HAL Cost Benefit Analysis JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW
5 Nov CAA CAA's October Consultation and Initial Business Plan / Final Business Plan JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW
6 Nov Arora JH met with Surinder Arora (Chairman), Carlton Brown (CFO), who outlined Arora Group and their thinking in relation to Heathrow. In return JH described the role and responsibilities of the CCB, which at present are limited to scrutiny of HAL as the licence holder and therefore the entity regulated by the CAA. JH
19 Nov HAL Update on Consumer Engagement Plan, Expansion and Surface Access. JH, IL, JS, TM, CW, AB
20 Nov HAL Exec Committee JH updated the HAL exec committee on progress of consumer engagement. JH
17 Dec HAL The CCB updated HAL on the Challenge Log, Version 4 JH, IL, DH, CW

2017

Date Organisation Topic CCB attendance
21 Feb Heathrow AOC Governance, responsibilities and consumer engagement carried out by the airlines JH
21 Feb CAA 2012 Aviation Act, CAA Consumer Panel and consumer engagement carried out by CAA JH
24 Feb CAA Role of the CCB JH
27 Feb LACC Governance and future investment JH
1 Mar HAL Overview of Heathrow's performance and discussion of R3 JH
2 Mar IATA Previous price control period (Q6) JH
3 Apr DfT UKG Aviation Strategy JH
3 Apr LACC Introductory meeting JH
5 Apr BA Overview of BA, BA's consumer research and BA's perspective on H7 JH, IL, DH, JS, TM
5 Apr HAL Introduction to consumer research and willingness to pay research JH
13 Apr CAA Overview of CAA, Consumers and Markets Group, CAA Tracker survey, Aviation Statistics, economic regulation of HAL JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW, AB
20 Apr CAA Consumer Panel Introductory meeting JH
21 Apr HACC Introductory meeting JH
25 Apr HAL Willingness to pay research DH
25 Apr CAA Introductory meeting JH
3 May HAL/NATS Tour of airport, overview of punctuality, capacity, consumer research, Service Quality Rebate Scheme (SQR), Quality of Service Monitor, Airport Service Quality (ASQ) JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, AB
8 May CAA R3/H7 work programme JH, DH, JS, TM, AB
8 May CAA Consumer Panel Role, responsibilities and relationship between Consumer Panel and CCB JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, AB
8 May HAL Engagement with airlines, DfT and CAA. Strategic Brief HAL 2030/2040. Consumer engagement on surface access, journey mapping, PRMs and social media JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, AB
9 May CAA Update on CCB progress JH
22 May HAL Influencing factors on the passenger journey and immigration insights JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, AB
5 Jun HAL/NATS Airspace resilience overview, Consumer Research, Outcomes and Capital Overview JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW, AB
3 Jul LACC Update on CCB progress JH, AB
10 Jul Virgin Overview of Virgin Atlantic, Virgin's consumer research, and Virgin's perspective on H7 JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW, AB
12 Jul HAL Update on CCB progress IL, DH
12 Jul HACC Introductory meeting JH
17 Jul HAL Preparation for forthcoming meeting with HAL board. Review progress to date JH
25 Jul HAL Personal introduction and description of composition, role, modus operandi and activities of CCB. JH
26 Jul HAL Personal introduction and description of composition, role, modus operandi and activities of CCB. JH
2 Aug Which Introduce role and work of CCB. Explore consumer views of current and future Heathrow experience.

JH

5 Sep HAL Introduce role and work of CCB. Explore consumer views of current and future Heathrow experience. JH
11 Sep HAL Feedback to HAL's Consumer Research and Engagement Strategy IL, DH, JS, TM, CW, AB
21 Sept HAL Inception meeting for the qualitative phase in preparation for HAL's willingness to pay (WTP) research IL, CW
28 Sep BA Update on CCB progress JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW, AB
23 Oct CAA Update on consultation and presentation on airport charges IL, DH, JS, CW, AB
23 Oct HAL Second review of HAL's updated Consumer Research and Engagement Strategy IL, DH, JS, CW, AB
1 Nov HAL Review of qualitative research results JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW, AB
9 Nov CCB Review of qualitative WTP research results JH, IL, DH, JS, CW, AB
23 Nov Border Force Objectives and parameters of UK Border Force's work at Heathrow, and how that interfaces with HAL. JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW, AB
4 Dec HAL
  • Passenger Insight community
  • WTP attributes
  • PRM
  • Surface access
  • Consumer research and engagement strategy
  • Business planning process
JH, IL, DH, JS, TM, CW, AB
5 Dec Tripartite HAL Airlines CCB Review attributes for WTP survey

JH, CW, DH, AB

5 Dec HAL/CAA HAL presented to the CAA/CCB how consumer engagement is driving Heathrow's expansion plans. DH
11 Dec CAA Update on CCB progress. JH
18 Dec Lufthansa Lufthansa views on consumer research and H7 and their expectations of R3/expansion. Contrasts or lessons which can be learned from consumer experience of other major hub airports like FRA. JH, IL, DH,TM, CW, AB
21 Dec HAL Update on CCB progress. CCB shared some of the key issues and challenges the CCB have raised or observed about HAL's consumer engagement. JH

Abbreviations:

  • BA - British Airways
  • DfT - Department for Transport
  • HACC - Heathrow Airport Consultative Committee
  • HAL - Heathrow Airport Limited
  • Heathrow AOC - Heathrow Airline Operators Committee
  • IATA - International Air Transport Association
  • LACC - London (Heathrow) Airport Consultative Committee
Close Meeting summaries

Contact us

Consumer Challenge Board Secretariat - Claudette Williams

Email: info@h7ccb.co.uk

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