To qualify for a single-engine (single pilot) aeroplane class rating, you must complete an appropriate training course at an approved training organisation (ATO) or registered training facility (RTF) until April 2018.
You must have a valid and appropriate class or type rating in order to do any flying other than flight instruction, skill tests or proficiency checks for the renewal of type or class ratings.
This does not apply in the case of the LAPL, SPL or BPL.
If you hold a type or class rating, you can act as pilot on the class or type of aircraft specified in the rating.
Theoretical knowledge examinations must be taken at an ATO. The exams will have a different format depending on the aircraft type the rating is appropriate for:
If you hold a type rating for an aircraft type with the privileges for either single-pilot or multi-pilot operations, then you will be fully credited for the theoretical knowledge requirements when you apply to add the privilege for the other form of operation (single- or multi-pilot operations) on the same aircraft type.
At the end of your training course, you will need to pass a skill test with a suitably qualified examiner, in the relevant aircraft class or type, to demonstrate that you can competently carry out the procedures and manoeuvres that you have been taught, while acting as pilot in command (PIC).
You must pass the skill test within 6 months of starting your training course. You must also apply for the issue of the rating within 6 months of the completion date of your skill test.
In order to extend privileges to another variant of aeroplane within one class or type rating, the pilot must undertake differences or familiarisation training. In the case of variants within a type rating, the differences or familiarisation training shall include the relevant elements defined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Part-21.
If the variant has not been flown within a period of 2 years following the differences training, further differences training or a proficiency check in that variant shall be required to maintain the privileges, except for types or variants within the single engine piston and TMG class ratings.
The differences training shall be entered in the pilot's logbook or equivalent record and signed by the instructor as appropriate. Some variants only need familiarisation whereas some need differences training.
These systems make a significant difference to performance in all phases of flight. Mostly, the instruction in this section will be given to pilots converting from SEP aeroplanes with fixed pitch propellers to SEP or MEP aeroplanes with VP propellers and constant speed units (CSU). The system on some older types may not include a CSU and instructors must ensure that all of the system differences and handling techniques, introduced by the new type, are properly covered in the training given.
Differences Training completed, for this section, on an SEP aeroplane, does not provide equivalent qualification on MEP aeroplanes.
Principle of operation and effect on performance;
System construction and function;
Propeller system limitations;
Engine limitations and instrumentation.
Operation of throttle, mixture and propeller controls, including pre-flight checks and normal handling during:
In-flight failures, within the propeller system, including:
Emergency handling, during:
Engine failures after take-off including propeller feathering and effect of wind-mill drag;
Circuit and approach with one or more engines inoperative;
Go-around with one or more engines inoperative;
Landing with one or more engines inoperative.
Differences Training completed, for this section, on an SEP aeroplane, does not provide equivalent qualification on MEP aeroplanes:
In-flight system failures and emergency lowering.
Operation of undercarriage during:
Considerations for MEP Aeroplanes:
Differences Training completed, for this section, on a SEP aeroplane, does not provide equivalent qualification on MEP Aeroplanes:
Engine handling including pre-flight checks and normal operation during:
Operations at high altitude including:
Normal operation including pre-flight checks, setting and monitoring during:
Differences training, for this section, on a single-engine aeroplane does not provide equivalent qualification on multi-engine aeroplanes.
Engine and Ancillaries
Loading and Performance
and review of Pilots' Operating Handbook
Converting from SLPC Aeroplanes;
Engine and System Components, Construction, Layout and Function:
Operation and Engine Handling
In-Flight Failures and Emergency Handling
Airborne training in the use of Integrated EFIS demands considerable attention of both instructor and pilot, often at the expense of lookout and flight safety. It is recommended that this training be carried out with an appropriate Part Task Trainer, FNPT or other STD. In any event, maximum use should be made of any available videos, manufacturers' or agents' computer based training aids and programmes.
Increasingly, single-pilot aircraft are being fitted with digital Electronic Flight Instrumentation Systems (EFIS) consisting of electronic 'glass instruments' and integrated digital avionics displays of widely varying complexity and capability. These systems present a significant change from conventional, mechanical flight instruments in the way the information is presented and the interpretation of these systems requires a thorough understanding by the pilot.
For the purposes of this requirement, an EFIS display requiring differences training is an electronic presentation of the primary flight instruments that presents gyroscopic instrument, pressure instrument and navigation information that is used by the pilot as a primary reference for control of the aircraft in flight.
Differences training requires both theoretical knowledge and training on an appropriate training device or an aeroplane. The instructors and training providers who may give the training are detailed in subsequent paragraphs.
Pilots converting to an EFIS equipped aeroplane for the first time, within the Single Engine Piston Class Rating, are required to complete differences training to the satisfaction of an appropriately qualified Class or Instrument Rating Instructor or Flight Instructor. Those pilots with logbook evidence to show that they have been operating these aircraft as pilot in command, prior to September 9th 2010, the issue date of an AIC on the topic, are exempt from this requirement.
Pilots converting to another EFIS equipped aeroplane within the privileges of other type or class ratings are strongly advised to complete similar differences training. When converting either to or from EFIS within a single-pilot type rating, pilots should attend a Training Organisation approved to conduct type-rating training courses on the particular aircraft type and variant.
Pilots converting to another Integrated EFIS display should obtain further differences training, whether or not the same manufacturer produces the new system. Familiarisation training should be sufficient for FIs or CRI/TRIs who are fully qualified to teach all applied instrument flying and who are already trained on another Integrated EFIS system.
Pilots trained in using Integrated EFIS displays but not trained on mechanical flight instruments, are likely to have established a scan pattern quite different from the techniques required by a conventional, mechanical instrument layout. These pilots are strongly advised to obtain differences training on conventional instruments, including selective radial scan techniques, before flying an aircraft with conventional mechanical instrumentation. EFIS can provide very precise information, which requires little interpretation, as opposed to conventional instrument displays, which require considerable interpretation and different scan techniques. A key element in this type of training, on whatever system, is ensuring the pilot fully understands what information is available, what is being displayed and how to interpret the display correctly.
EASA guidance for type rating holders wishing to fly different series/variants.
Class and type ratings are valid for 1 year, counted from the end of the calendar month in which you completed your skill test, with the exception of single-pilot single-engine class ratings which are valid for 2 years, counted from the end of the calendar month in which you completed your skill test.
If your rating expires, you will need to take refresher training as determined by an ATO and pass a proficiency check with a suitably qualified examiner.
Renewal of class and type ratings: refresher training
(a) Paragraph (b)(1) of FCL.740 determines that if a class or type rating has lapsed, the applicant shall take refresher training at an ATO. The objective of the training is to reach the level of proficiency necessary to safely operate the relevant type or class of aircraft.
The amount of refresher training needed should be determined on a case-by-case basis by the ATO, taking into account the following factors:
It should be expected that the amount of training needed to reach the desired level of competence will increase with the time elapsed since the privileges of the rating were last used.
Once the ATO has determined the needs of the applicant, it should develop an individual training programme based on the ATO's approved course for the rating, focussing on the aspects where the applicant has shown the greatest needs.
Theoretical knowledge instruction should be included as necessary; such as for type-specific system failures in complex aircraft. The performance of the applicant should be reviewed during the training and additional instruction provided where necessary to reach the standard required for the proficiency check.
After successful completion of the training, the ATO should provide a training completion certificate to the applicant, describing the training provided. The training completion certificate should be presented to the Examiner prior to the
Proficiency check. Following the successful renewal of the rating the completion certificate and examiner report form should be submitted to the competent authority, together with the relevant application form if the examiner cannot sign the certificate of revalidation in Section XII of the UK-issued licence.
Note: Licence holders, ATOs and examiners are reminded that examiners are only authorised to sign the certificate of validation in Section XII (page 5 onwards) of a UK-issued licence when the rating is still shown on page 4 (Section XII) of the licence.
If the rating is no longer printed on page 4 (Section XII) of the licence, but appears in the section “ratings previously held by holder”, the rating is no longer included in the licence and cannot be reinstated by an examiner. In those circumstances application for renewal of the rating must e made to the CAA so that the rating may be made valid by being included in the licence again.
To revalidate the rating you must complete the following:
Note: If you hold valid ratings written on your licence for both TMG and SEP, when you revalidate you may use the same flight time for both.
For all other routes, please apply via our postal application forms with all other required associated documents listed in the guidance of the application forms ( such as ID and logbooks):
If you are applying on the basis of training and testing conducted by a non UK approved EASA Part FCL Approved Training Organisation you must send copies of the following:
If you are applying on the basis of a Third country ICAO licence conversion you will need to send us:
Please ensure that your training provider is approved to conduct the training that you are undertaking.
We strongly recommend you check that your instructor and examiner hold the relevant privileges to conduct the training and any flight test, examination or assessment of competence that is being carried out.
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