• Visual Fields

    EASA MED.B.070 (e) states that “Applicants for a Class 1 medical certificate shall be assessed as unfit, where they do not have normal fields of vision and that medical condition is likely to jeopardise the safe exercise of the privileges of the licence, taking account of any appropriate corrective measures where relevant”.

    For clarity, the UK CAA defines "normal fields of vision" as follows:

    Monocularly, on Esterman field testing, there should be no more than two confluent missed spots within 20 degrees vertically from the primary position and 30 degrees horizontally from the primary position.

    Where the monocular Esterman field is abnormal in either or both eyes, a binocular Esterman test should be carried out. Visual field defects in either or both eyes may be acceptable where they compensate for one another such that the Esterman binocular field is satisfactory.

    A satisfactory binocular Esterman field is one in which there are no more than 4 missed spots, of which not more than 2 shall be contiguous in the visual field defined horizontally by 60 degrees either side of the primary position and vertically by 20 degrees above the primary position and 30 degrees below the primary position.

    Visual fields should be carried out on Humphrey or Octopus field analysers. Goldman kinetic fields may be requested by the CAA when clarification is required on static field abnormalities and may form an acceptable alternative in situations where individuals cannot cope with automated perimetry.

    Binocular Vision

    There are three grades of binocular vision in the Worth’s classification: simultaneous macular perception (Grade 1), fusion (Grade 2) and stereopsis (Grade 3). For the purposes of aeromedical certification, ‘normal binocular function’ includes all of these. This would include situations in which individuals have well-adapted heterotropia, are not at risk of diplopia, and/or have adopted a suppression scotoma when both eyes are open.