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UK – EU Transition, and UK Civil Aviation Regulations

To access current UK civil aviation regulations, including AMC and GM, CAA regulatory documents, please use this link to UK Regulation. Please note, if you use information and guidance under the Headings below, the references to EU regulations or EU websites in our guidance will not be an accurate information or description of your obligations under UK law. These pages are undergoing reviews and updates.

What is GHOST?

The Ground Handling Operations Safety Team (GHOST) is a multi-disciplined Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) / Industry group set up to address / share the learning from ground handling issues with the aim of improving safety.

Specific topics are identified using Mandatory Occurrence Reporting (MOR) data, intelligence, and feedback from members.

The group agree approaches which could be in the form of a new high profile initiative or project, or providing clarity or enhanced guidance to an existing regulation, policy or procedure.

Ground Handling

The CAA has identified ground handling in its Safety Plan as one of the ‘Significant Seven’ - the main seven areas of risk in the UK Aviation sector. GHOST is made up of a main group which develops strategies to mitigate the safety risks from ground handling and supports activities in the UK and elsewhere. There are also two subgroups, one addressing loading errors and one overseeing ‘capability issues’ and human performance

We are Safety

The We Are Safety logo will be displayed on all future materials produced by GHOST. This safety branding was introduced to the Team by gate group and easyJet, with the intention of providing a collaborative and consistent approach to sharing safety information. The slogan ‘’An Awareness That Runs Through Us All’’ symbolises a unifying value that runs throughout our community and provides the ideal common ground for establishing cross-organisational campaigns.

GHOST has established a dedicated subgroup to work on collaborative campaigns and create materials that will include alerts, good practices, learnings, notable news and other safety related publications relevant to the industry.

Focus areas

The CAA’s Safety Review Board monitors the work of GHOST to ensure that the actions being delivered are the ones that address the biggest risks.

GHOST priorities for this year (based on assessment of risk factors)

  1. Reducing the numbers and severity of loading errors
  2. Encouraging open reporting of safety events

See below for when a report should be made through the Mandatory Occurrence Reporting (MOR) scheme:

Fuel operations and other essential fluids

The Ground Handling Operations Safety Team (GHOST) is working across the aviation industry to support a just culture that encourages open reporting of accidents and incidents.

Ground handling staff working with fuel and other essential fluids should use the CAA's Mandatory Occurrence Reporting (MOR) process if any of the following events occur:

  • Significant spillage during fuelling operations.
    (Significant spillage can be defined as a spillage unable to be contained/controlled by the ground service providers' spilling kit.)
  • Loading of incorrect fuel quantities likely to have a significant effect on aircraft endurance, performance, balance or structural strength.
  • Loading of contaminated or incorrect type of fuel or other essential fluids (including oxygen and drinking water).
Close Fuel operations and other essential fluids

Aircraft damage and unintended contact

The Ground Handling Operations Safety Team (GHOST) is working across the aviation industry to support a just culture that encourages open reporting of accidents and incidents.

Ground handling staff should use the CAA's Mandatory Occurrence Reporting (MOR) process if any of the following events occur:

  • Unintended contact between an aircraft and any other aircraft, vehicle, ground equipment or ground object.
  • Close unintended proximity between aircraft and ground vehicles but contact is not made (near miss).
  • Equipment/vehicles obstructing the ramp while the aircraft is parking or pushing back.
  • Unreported damage to aircraft (for example from the previous sector).
Close Aircraft damage and unintended contact

Ground service equipment

The Ground Handling Operations Safety Team (GHOST) is working across the aviation industry to support a just culture that encourages open reporting of accidents and incidents.

Ground handling staff should use the CAA's Mandatory Occurrence Reporting (MOR) process if any of the following events occur:

  • The removal of aircraft steps where it endangered aircraft occupants/ground service providers.
  • The positioning or removing of equipment without following the correct procedures.
  • Failures or malfunctions of ground equipment that could endanger the aircraft e.g. tow bar failures (including sheer pin failures), ground power unit (GPU) fires.
Close Ground service equipment

Stand conditions / operating environment

The Ground Handling Operations Safety Team (GHOST) is working across the aviation industry to support a just culture that encourages open reporting of accidents and incidents.

Ground handling staff should use the CAA's Mandatory Occurrence Reporting (MOR) process if any of the following events occur:

  • Failure or significant deterioration of aerodrome aircraft operating surfaces.
  • Ramp conditions that may cause a hazardous situation for the aircraft.
  • Jet or prop/rotor wash incidents resulting in significant damage or serious injury.
  • Unsatisfactory ground de-icing/anti-icing (airside environment).
Close Stand conditions / operating environment

Personal safety and injury

The Ground Handling Operations Safety Team (GHOST) is working across the aviation industry to support a just culture that encourages open reporting of accidents and incidents.

Ground handling staff should use the CAA's Mandatory Occurrence Reporting (MOR) process if they see people endangered by aircraft.

This could occur either by actions or omissions relating to an aircraft (e.g. anti-collision beacons switched off prematurely, passengers allowed to walk across ramp unsupervised).

Close Personal safety and injury

Aircraft de-icing and anti-icing

The Ground Handling Operations Safety Team (GHOST) is working across the aviation industry to support a just culture that encourages open reporting of accidents and incidents.

Ground handling staff should use the CAA's Mandatory Occurrence Reporting (MOR) process if any of the following events occur:

  • Unsatisfactory aircraft de-icing/anti-icing on the ground.
  • Contamination or degradation of de-icing/anti-icing fluid.
Close Aircraft de-icing and anti-icing

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