References to EU regulation or EU websites in our guidance will not be an accurate description of your obligations or rights under UK law.read more
SERA is the transposition into law of ICAO Annex 2 (Rules of the Air) and parts of ICAO Annex 3 (Meteorology), Annex 10 (Communication Procedures), Annex 11 (Air Traffic Services) and Doc 4444 (PANS-ATM). Pilots, air traffic controllers, flight information service officers, aerodrome operators and anyone else involved in the operation of aircraft need to understand the rules.
SERA (Reg (EU) No 923/2012 amended by Reg (EU) 2016/1185 and the Aviation Safety (Amendment) Regulations 2021) applies to every aircraft operating in UK airspace regardless of type or state of registration. Note that references to EU regulations on this webpage are to those regulations as retained and amended in UK domestic law under the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018. As these rules do not cover all aspects of the Rules of the Air, the UK maintains supplementary rules that complement SERA, permit routine operations such as VFR flight at night, and grant exemptions from SERA’s requirements. The UK publishes its supplementary rules in the form of The Rules of the Air Regulations 2015. They took effect on 30 April 2015 and are supported by permissions and general exemptions that preserve certain legacy operational flexibilities to the greatest possible degree. The Air Navigation Order is aligned with SERA. We publish a consolidation of the Air Navigation Order, the Rules of the Air regulations and other legislation in CAP393 Air Navigation: The Order and Regulations. The Rules of the Air are reflected in the United Kingdom Aeronautical Information Publication and its supporting Aeronautical Information Circulars, available here.
While SERA stipulates when a flight plan is required (e.g. SERA.5005(c) for VFR flight at night leaving the vicinity of an aerodrome) it is important to note that it does not prescribe the means by which a flight plan is to be submitted. In this respect there is no change to the current guidance in The UK Flight Planning Guide (CAP 694) or the UK AIP (although that guidance will be reviewed). So, for example, abbreviated/air-filed flight plans will continue to apply in certain circumstances, a 'paper' flight plan is not always required, and SERA does not affect how a flight plan may be filed. You can read more detail on how CAP 694's guidance continues to apply, together with indications as to where CAP 694 is likely to evolve to better reflect SERA content.
See-and-avoid serves three functions in UK airspace:
1. Self-separation of both IFR and VFR aircraft outside controlled airspace
2. As a separation procedure for VFR aircraft flying in Class C and D airspace:
3. Last resort separation if other methods fail to prevent a confliction, regardless of the nature of the airspace.
It is important to distinguish between 'unalerted' and 'alerted' see-and-avoid. In alerted see-and avoid, the pilot of an aircraft in controlled airspace is assisted by means of traffic information to sight the traffic. Unalerted see-and-avoid, on the other hand, relies entirely on the ability of the pilot to sight other aircraft.
Effective see and avoid requires the application of:
Links to further reading related to both see and avoid plus collision avoidance are included under Related Information at the foot of this page.
Through the Aviation Safety (Amendment) Regulations 2021, on 20 May 2021 the UK will implement an amendment to SERA.5001 Table S5-1 that modifies the VMC visibility and distance from cloud minima in airspace Classes D, F and G. From 20 May 2021, pilots will be deemed to have complied with the requirements of SERA.5001 when operating at or below 3,000 ft AMSL, or 1,000 ft above terrain, whichever is the higher, if they are flying:
Within Class D airspace: a) During day only;b) Indicated airspeed of 140 kts or less; c) Remains clear of cloud with the surface in sight and; (i) For aircraft other than helicopters, with a flight visibility of at least 5 km; (ii)For helicopters, with a flight visibility of at least 1,500 m. Within Class F and G airspace: a) During day only; b) Indicated airspeed of 140 kts or less; c) For all aircraft, remains clear of cloud with the surface in sight and with a flight visibility of at least 1,500 m.
On behalf of
the Department for Transport (DfT), we have identified and evaluated the impacts
of the revised VMC minima on the safe and efficient operation of UK class D
airspace. Our analysis of these impacts
is recorded in CAA Impact Analysis – Changes to VMC Minima in UK Class
D Airspace (CAP2093).
analysis, represents a marker in time, analysing and reporting on the impacts
of the revised minima at the time of publication and has been accepted by the
DfT. In it, we conclude that, subject
to the satisfactory resolution of our concerns regarding the operation of
helicopters in the Manchester Low-Level Route, on balance, the impact of the
change is neutral.
Procedures applicable to the Manchester LLR are being reviewed in light of the amendment to SERA.5001 Table S5-1 and the modification to the VMC visibility and distance from cloud minima in class D airspace. Manchester’s entry in the Aeronautical Information Publication (EGCC AD2.22) may be subject to amendment and details will be available at www.ais.org.uk under ‘News’.
Regulation (EU) No 2020/469 of 14 February 2020 introduces a number of amendments to SERA. However, amendments that are scheduled to become applicable after 31 December 2020 will be subject to additional UK rule-making processes to determine whether the amendment should be implemented. A summary of the SERA changes will be developed in due course.
More detail concerning the work that the CAA is undertaking in relation to EU withdrawal can be found
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