As with any tall structure, the presence of a single crane or number of cranes has the potential to affect aviation activities. Crane-related issues are usually considered and managed in much the same way as any tall structure.
Because cranes can be erected at extremely short notice, a potential air navigation obstacle can therefore appear with very little notice. Accordingly, in some respects, cranes are assessed in a different light.
Working with industry groups, the CAA is currently undertaking a phased creation and implementation of the new crane notification process to better enable this assessment.
Stage A - (First trial - 1st October 2020 to 31st May 2021)
- Selected operators who have been invited to take part in the trial will utilise the CAP1096 and use the associated DAP 1924 form.
- All other operators are to use the guidance available at Non-Trial Crane Notification Guidance. Within this guidance, the crane users are encouraged to liaise directly with local aerodrome license holders/operators. However, where any crane is expected to extend to a height of 90m or more, to assist crane operators, the CAA upon request will attempt to provide comment, guidance or recommendation on a case-by-case basis. To assist with identifying relevant aerodromes, the Non-Trial Crane Notification Areas - 6km can be used to identify aerodromes with safeguarded areas. Where the CAA are required to be notified, the DAP 1924 can be utilised to support the provision to the required data.
Stage B - (Trial reflection - 1st June 2021 to 30th September 2021)
The CAA will utilise this period to reflect upon the trial results to identify potential improvements and amendments to the CAP1096 process. During this process the CAA will continue to engage with the industry and stakeholders to prepare for subsequent phases. During this step, all operators are to use the process outlined in Phase 1 Stage A (2).
Due to a recent change to the Air Navigation Order, there is now a mandatory requirement to notify the CAA of all cranes of a height of 100 m Above Ground Level (AGL) and more.
Stage A - (Second trial - 1st October 2021 to 31st March 2022)
- Selected operators who are taking part in the trial will utilise the CAP1096 published guidance. All trial participants should use the new online notification form. Operators who wish to take part in the trial should contact Airspace Regulation to discuss participation.
- During this step, all operators who are not taking part in the trial are to continue to use the notification guidance (on this page) . Within this guidance, the crane users are encouraged to liaise directly with local aerodrome license holders/operators. To assist with identifying relevant aerodromes, the Non-Trial Crane Notification Areas - 6km can be used to identify aerodromes with safeguarded areas. Operators are to note the mandatory requirement now in force to notify the CAA of any crane that is (or is proposed to be) at or above 100 metres AGL regardless of proximity to aerodromes or height of surrounding structures. Where the CAA are required to be notified, the DAP 1924 or the new online notification form can be utilised to support the provision of the required data.
- Where the new online notification form is being used, the operators should note within the application if they are trial participants. The CAA would welcome feedback on the new form's effectiveness. Feedback received alongside wider stakeholder engagement will be used to assist development of the new partly automated notification and assessment process detailed in Phase 3. Please address feedback to email@example.com with the subject line - AVOKA Feedback.
Stage B - (Confirmation of readiness - Q1/Q2 2022)
The CAA will review and publish updated guidance if required and confirm the implementation plan and timescales. Noting full implementation of CAP 1096 will occur no earlier than 1 April 2022 where the industry will be provided with at least 3 months' notice prior to introduction .
Planned implementation of CAP 1096 will occur no earlier than 1 April 2022, where implementation will be aligned to the introduction of a new partly automated system, currently in development. The development of this new system will require stakeholder engagement to develop and test to ensure acceptance. This work is expected to begin in early 2022, where timelines will be updated in Phase 2 Stage B, as development work is conducted.
Throughout the three planned phases, industry groups and stakeholders will be engaged with where updates of this trial will form part of regular industry meetings, to ensure the community is informed on progress. In addition to this, relevant updates will be published on this website and communicated to relevant stakeholders and representative bodies directly.
Advice to aerodromes related to High Speed Rail 2 (HS2) or other long-term construction projects within their safeguard area
For long term crane notification(s), aerodrome operators are suggests to consider the use of AIP supplements to AD 2.10 in advance to satisfy the notification requirements. For more information please see the NOTAM guidance available on the AIS website or contact the UK NOTAM Office.
Notification guidance for operators not taking part in the crane trial
Notification is required if a crane is:
- to be used within 6 km of the aerodrome/airfield and its height exceeds 10m Above Ground Level (AGL) or that of surrounding structures or trees, if higher
- is to be operated at or above a height of 100m AGL regardless of location
The hirer of the crane (principal or other contractor) is responsible for notifying relevant aerodromes and the lighting of the crane. Crane suppliers should ensure that hirers are aware of this.
We encourage crane users to liaise directly with local aerodrome operators.
If the crane is in the vicinity of an aerodrome AND 100m or higher above ground level, you need to notify both the aerodrome and the CAA, as described below.
If the crane is in the vicinity of an aerodrome AND 100m or higher above ground level AND in situ for more than 90 days, you need to notify the aerodrome, the CAA and the DGC, as described below.
Cranes in situ for more than 90 days
Before the crane is erected, users must also notify:
- the CAA by contacting Airspace Regulation
- the Defence Geographic Centre (DGC)
The DGC maintains the UK's master database of tall structures (the Digital Vertical Obstruction File (DVOF)). They can be contacted at 0208 818 2702 / firstname.lastname@example.org
It is now mandatory to notify the CAA of any crane of a height of 100m AGL and more. This requirement applies regardless of where the crane is located. The DAP 1924 or the new online notification form can be utilised to support the provision of the required data. The CAA would welcome feedback on the new form's effectiveness. Feedback received alongside wider stakeholder engagement will be used to assist development of the new partly automated notification and assessment process detailed in Phase 3. Please address feedback to email@example.com with the subject line - AVOKA Feedback.
Lighting and marking requirements
Lighting and marking requirements are outlined within the published CAP 1096 pg. 3-4
Cranes should be clearly visible which can be achieved by applying obstacle lighting and if necessary, marking.
We recommend the following in terms of best practice.
In vicinity of an aerodrome
For obstacles of any height, including cranes, which are affecting aerodrome operations the lighting and marking requirement will be dictated by the relevant aerodrome operator in accordance with ICAO Annex 14.
The aerodrome will liaise directly with the relevant crane user but for general guidance on lighting and marking see the guidance below.
Lighting aids should be supplied with secondary power unless agreed otherwise with the aerodrome operator.
En-Route (Cranes 150 metres or higher above ground level (AGL))
En-route obstacles (including cranes) of a height of 150m or more AGL must be fitted with lighting in accordance with the Air Navigation Order. Medium intensity (generically 2000 candela) steady red lights must be displayed at night and be visible from all directions (omnidirectional).
We recommend that lights are also displayed during daylight periods.
Lighting aids should be supplied with secondary power unless agreed otherwise with the CAA (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Cranes up to 150 metres above ground level
We recommend that :
- the guidance shown above is also followed for all cranes with a height of 45m up to 150m AGL;
- cranes with a height less than 45m AGL are also lit in accordance with this guidance with the exception that low intensity (generically 32 candela) steady red lights should be used.
Positioning of lighting
In all cases, lights must be positioned as close as possible to the top of the crane.
Where the top of the crane is more than 45 m AGL, additional lights should be provided at intermediate levels spaced as equally as practicable, between the top lights and ground level or the level of tops of nearby buildings, as appropriate, with the spacing not exceeding 52 m.
Lights should also be applied to show the height and the shape of the crane (i.e. lights installed on both ends of the jib)
In all cases, we recommend that cranes are made conspicuous by their colour, especially if they are not permanently lit.
- be coloured to show alternating bands that contrast with each other and the background
- be perpendicular to the longest dimension and at least 5 metres wide
Our review has found that a yellow and black (or dark blue) pattern provides the best contrast with the background from the air, especially in urban areas.
If you have any questions regarding these processes, please contact Airspace Regulation.
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