Remotely controlled model aircraft have been flown for many years in the UK. These models tend to be scaled down versions models of real types of aeroplanes and helicopters. Many hobbyists tend to fly from specific, designated sites and as part of a club environment which is clearly the best way to learn and get most out of the hobby. However, ‘solo’ flight from other locations is also possible provided that the models are operated in accordance with the requirements of the law and are flown with respect to the safety of other people and aircraft.
The regulations for model aircraft flights are contained within the Air Navigation Order 2016 (ANO) which is the primary document for all aviation regulations within the United Kingdom. In order to keep the regulations at a proportionate level for smaller models, a set of specific, simpler, regulations apply to aircraft that have a mass of 20kg or less (which are termed ‘small unmanned aircraft’ within the ANO).
In simple terms, these regulations state that:
The full regulations are shown below.
A person must not recklessly or negligently cause or permit an aircraft to endanger
any person or property
(1) A person must not cause or permit any article or animal (whether or not attached to a parachute) to be dropped from a small unmanned aircraft so as to endanger persons or property.
(2) The remote pilot of a small unmanned aircraft may only fly the aircraft if reasonably satisfied that the flight can safely be made.
(3) The remote pilot of a small unmanned aircraft must maintain direct, unaided visual contact with the aircraft sufficient to monitor its flight path in relation to other aircraft, persons, vehicles, vessels and structures for the purpose of avoiding collisions.
(4) Intentionally blank (articles removed)
(5) The SUA operator must not cause or permit a small unmanned aircraft to be flown for the purposes of commercial operations, and the remote pilot of a small unmanned aircraft must not fly it for the purposes of commercial operations, except in accordance with a permission granted by the CAA.
(1) If the permission or permissions that are required under this article for a flight, or a part of a flight, by a small unmanned aircraft have not been obtained-
(a) the SUA operator must not cause or permit the small unmanned aircraft to be flown on that flight or that part of the flight; and
(b) the remote pilot must not fly the small unmanned aircraft on that flight or that part of the flight.
(2) Permission from the CAA is required for a flight, or a part of a flight, by a small unmanned aircraft at a height of more than 400 feet above the surface
(3) But permission from the CAA is not required under paragraph (2) if-
(a) the flight, or the part of the flight, takes place in a flight restriction zone at a protected aerodrome, and
(b) permission for the flight, or the part of the flight, is required under paragraph (4) from an air traffic control unit or a flight information service unit.
(4) Permission for a flight, or a part of a flight, by a small unmanned aircraft in the flight restriction zone of a protected aerodrome is required-
(a) from any air traffic control unit at the protected aerodrome, if the flight, or the part of the flight, takes place during the operational hours of the air traffic control unit;
(b) from any flight information service unit at the protected aerodrome, if the flight, or the part of the flight, takes place during the operational hours of the flight information service unit and either-
(i) there is no air traffic control unit at the protected aerodrome, or
(ii) the flight, or the part of the flight, takes place outside the operational hours of the air traffic control unit at the protected aerodrome;
(c) from the operator of the protected aerodrome, if-
(i) there is neither an air traffic control unit nor a flight information service unit at the protected aerodrome; or
(ii) the flight, or the part of the flight, takes place outside the operational hours of any such unit or units at the protected aerodrome.
(5) In this article, “operational hours”, in relation to an air traffic control unit or flight information service unit, means the operational hours-
(a) notified in relation to the unit, or
(b) set out in the UK military AIP in relation to the unit.
(6) In this article and article 94B, “protected aerodrome” means-
(a) an EASA certified aerodrome,
(b) a Government aerodrome,
(c) a national licensed aerodrome, or
(d) an aerodrome that is prescribed, or of a description prescribed, for the purposes of this paragraph.
(7) The “flight restriction zone” of a protected aerodrome is to be determined for the purposes of this article in accordance with the following table-
A protected aerodrome which is-
(b) a Government aerodrome, or
(c) a national licensed aerodrome,
and which has an aerodrome traffic zone.
The flight restriction zone consists of-
(a) the aerodrome traffic zone at the aerodrome,
(b) any runway protection zones at the aerodrome, and
(c) any additional boundary zones at the aerodrome.
but which does not have an aerodrome traffic zone.
The flight restriction zone consists of the airspace extending from the surface to a height of 2,000 feet above the level of the aerodrome within the area bounded by a circle centred on the notified mid-point of the longest runway and having a radius of two nautical miles.
But if the longest runway does not have a notified mid-point, the mid-point of that runway is to be used instead for the purposes of determining the flight restriction zone.
(1) This article makes provision about the meaning of expressions used in the definition of “flight restriction zone” in article 94A that applies in relation to a protected aerodrome which is-
(2) Subject to paragraph (4), there is one runway protection zone for each runway threshold of each runway at the aerodrome.
(3) A “runway protection zone”, in relation to a runway threshold at the aerodrome, is the airspace extending from the surface to a height of 2,000 feet above the level of the aerodrome within the area bounded by a rectangle-
(a) whose longer sides measure 5 km;
(b) whose shorter sides measure-
(i) 1 km (except in the case of Heathrow Airport);
(ii) 1.5 km, in the case of Heathrow Airport; and
(c) which is positioned so that-
(i) one of the shorter sides of the rectangle (“side A”) runs across the runway threshold, and
(ii) the two longer sides of the rectangle are parallel to, and equidistant from, the extended runway centre line as it extends from side A out to, and beyond, the runway end to which the runway threshold relates.
(4) There is no runway protection zone-
(a) for any runway threshold at the London Heliport;
(b) for any runway threshold that is prescribed, or of a description prescribed, for the purposes of this paragraph.
(5) The “runway threshold” of a runway at the aerodrome is the location that, for the purpose of demarcating the start of the portion of the runway that is useable for landing, is-
(a) notified as the threshold of the runway, or
(b) set out as the threshold of the runway in the UK military AIP.
(6) The “extended runway centre line”, in relation to a runway at the aerodrome, is an imaginary straight line which runs for the length of the runway along its centre and then extends beyond both ends of the runway.
(7) An “additional boundary zone” is the airspace extending from the surface to a height of 2,000 feet above the level of the aerodrome within any part of the area between-
(a) the boundary of the aerodrome, and
(b) a line that is 1 km from the boundary of the aerodrome (the “1 km line”),
that is neither within the aerodrome traffic zone nor within any runway protection zone at the aerodrome.
(8) The 1 km line is to be drawn so that the area which is bounded by it includes every location that is 1 km from the boundary of the aerodrome, measured in any direction from any point on the boundary.
(1) The SUA operator must not cause or permit a small unmanned surveillance aircraft to be flown in any of the circumstances described in paragraph (2), and the remote pilot of a small unmanned surveillance aircraft must not fly it in any of those circumstances, except in accordance with a permission issued by the CAA.
(2) The circumstances referred to in paragraph (1) are-
(a) over or within 150 metres of any congested area;
(b) over or within 150 metres of an organised open-air assembly of more than 1,000 persons;
(c) within 50 metres of any vessel, vehicle or structure which is not under the control of the SUA operator or the remote pilot of the aircraft; or
(d) subject to paragraphs (3) and (4), within 50 metres of any person.
(3) Subject to paragraph (4), during take-off or landing, a small unmanned surveillance aircraft must not be flown within 30 metres of any person.
(4) Paragraphs (2)(d) and (3) do not apply to the remote pilot of the small unmanned surveillance aircraft or a person under the control of the remote pilot of the aircraft.
(5) In this article, “a small unmanned surveillance aircraft” means a small unmanned aircraft which is equipped to undertake any form of surveillance or data acquisition.
is acknowledged that a number of aero modeller clubs operate within the
vicinity of aerodromes, some within the ATZ. As described in the 2019 ANO
amendment, the Flight Restriction Zone has been widened to the boundary of the
ATZ and Runway Protection Zones. This is likely to now encompass some more
clubs, which previously were not contained within FRZs. This now means that in
order to operate, model aircraft pilots will require permission from the
relevant aerodrome to be able to operate. It should be noted however, that this
permission is not necessarily required on a ‘per flight’ basis, but may be
issued on a more general basis by an air traffic service unit or aerodrome
operator. This may be agreed by a letter of agreement/MoU or otherwise. The CAA
recommends that aero modeller clubs near aerodromes establish a relationship
with the aerodrome, with a view to facilitating a positive two-way dialogue.
In aviation terms, ‘height’ means the vertical distance of an object (in this case the small unmanned aircraft) from a specified point of datum (in this case above the surface of the earth). To cater for the few occasions where a small unmanned aircraft is being flown over
hilly/undulating terrain or close to a cliff edge, the 400 ft height above the surface requirement may be interpreted as being a requirement to remain within a 400 ft distance from the surface, as shown in the diagram below. For the purposes of Article 94A, this is considered to be an acceptable means of
compliance with the legal requirement.
Remember that the limitation applies to ‘heights above/distances from’ the surface of the earth. It does not automatically apply to heights/distances from tall buildings or other structures: in such cases, an additional permission from the CAA will be required, which will invariably also require permission to operate within a congested area.
The CAA recognises that a 400ft height limitation can be difficult to achieve for some aspects of model flying and we also acknowledge the good historical safety record that model aircraft flying has when operated under the ‘best practice’ offered through established model flying associations. In recognition of this, permission to operate above 400ft, under certain defined circumstances, has been issued to a number of UK Model Aircraft Associations for use by their members. Please contact your association or further details of the conditions within this permission.
aircraft with a mass of more than 20kg are termed ‘Large Model Aircraft’
- within the UK, large model aircraft may only be flown in accordance with an exemption
from the ANO, which must be issued by the CAA.
Full details on the process to be followed for Large Model Aircraft can
be found in CAP658.
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