Flight occurs through a combination of the aircraft's forward speed and the lift generated by its wings. If the air
moving over the top of an aircraft’s wing is faster than the air passing beneath it lift is generated as the air
pressure on top of the wing is less than the pressure below.
By taking off into the wind aircraft can increase the lift generated by the wing. As the prevailing wind in the UK
is east / west most runways at UK airports face in those directions.
Once speed and lift are generated the pilot then controls an aircraft through the use of ailerons and elevators.
Ailerons are fitted to the back edge of each wing and turn the aircraft in flight. If a pilot wants to turn left they
move the control column in the cockpit to the left. This makes the aileron on the left wing go up and the aileron on
the right wing to go down. This changes the airflow over the wings and turns the aircraft to the left.
Elevators make an aircraft climb or descend and are fitted to the tail wings of the aircraft. If a pilot pushes the
control column forward this drops the elevator, the airflow change pushes the tail of the aircraft up and the nose
Before a new type of aircraft can enter service it has to be approved by regulatory authorities. This is called
certification and is normally undertaken by the aviation authority in the country that the aircraft is manufactured.
Boeing aircraft are American-built and certificated by the US Federal Aviation Administration; Airbus aircraft are
European-built and certificated by the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA), which undertakes certification work for
To pass the certification process aircraft have to comply with a set of design requirements. These cover all aspects
of the aircraft: its engines; and the materials and components they are made from.
Once an aircraft is certificated it can be sold to airlines and enter service. The original certification approval
is normally recognised automatically by other countries – so a Boeing certified in the USA would automatically receive
certification from EASA.
Manufacturers of aircraft and engines retain responsibility for the certification and ongoing airworthiness. During
an aircraft or engines lifetime issues may develop or modifications may be required. The manufacturer will take the
lead of ensuring these take place by working directly with airlines. If the change is important the certificating
regulator may also make the change a requirement by issuing an airworthiness notice. This will detail the change or
inspection required and indicate a completion time.
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