• EASA Certification Specification for Aeroplane Flight Simulation Training Devices CS-FSTD(A), Issue 2 was published on 3 May 2018 (Executive Director (ED) Decision 2018/006/R) and is being adopted within the UK FSTD regulatory framework in accordance with EU-defined timescales, discussed below. These updates to CS-FSTD(A) originate from Work Package 1 of EASA RMT.0196 which looked closely at defining the requirements for upset prevention and recovery training (UPRT) including stalling (in and out of icing conditions) on flight simulation training devices (FSTDs). RMT.0196’s terms of reference, regarding UPRT, were to:

    • Determine the appropriateness of full flight simulator’s capability to facilitate UPRT
    • Develop a definition for the term ‘validated training envelope’ (VTE)
    • Specify requirements for instructor operating station (IOS) feedback tools such as on the interpretation of the V-n and alpha/beta diagrams

    This page replaces IN-2016/044 from 1 July 2018 and is applicable to FSTD operators, aeroplane ATOs and aeroplane AOC holders. In addition to Issue 2 of CS-FSTD(A), EASA NPA 2017-13 gives further details of updates.

    The following information describes the process by which suitable FSTDs can be qualified to support UPRT. Approval to conduct UPRT on suitable FSTDs, using approved course materials and instructors, must also be obtained by approved training organisations (ATOs). EASA RMT.0581 defines regulations for UPRT licensing (FCL) and operations (OPS) approval requirements (available in EASA NPA 2015-13). Implementation of these regulations in Commission Regulation (EU) no 1178/2011, as amended is now expected 20 December 2019. It will not be possible to conduct approved UPRT on FSTDs before this date.

    New FSTDs

    FSTDs for which an initial qualification application was received on or after 4 May 2018 may use the updated CS-FSTD(A), Issue 2, as their primary reference document according to AMC1 ARA.FSTD.100(a)(1)(b)(1) (EASA regulations). This will only become mandatory when Regulation (EU) No.1178/2011 is updated with UPRT requirements on 20 December 2019 (ED Decision 2018/006/R). Therefore new FSTDs that are qualified against the requirements of CS-FSTD(A), Issue 2 can be qualified for UPRT but operators will not receive approval to conduct UPRT before 20 December 2019.

    Conducting full stall training tasks on FSTDs will be optional under the new regulations . Operators will have to declare to the CAA if this option is being included on their FSTDs and then demonstrate compliance with the associated requirements in CS-FSTD(A), Issue 2 as part of the qualification process.

    Already qualified FSTDs which will be upgraded to meet CS-FSTD(A) Issue 2

    Operators will need to apply to the CAA for a special evaluation of the additional functionality on applicable FSTDs which are already qualified. Such devices will be evaluated in accordance with ORA.FSTD.230 ‘Changes to the qualified FSTD’ and its associated AMC (EASA regulations). If the evaluation is successful, UPRT considerations will be added to the qualification certificate. However, FSTDs that are upgraded against the requirements of CS-FSTD(A), Issue 2 and qualified for UPRT will not receive user approval to conduct UPRT before 20 December 2019.

    Conducting full stall training tasks on FSTDs  will be optional under these new regulations. Operators will have to declare to the CAA if this option is being included on their FSTDs and then demonstrate compliance with the associated requirements in CS-FSTD(A), Issue 2 as part of the qualification process.

    Further information to support upgrades to previously qualified FSTDs can be found in CS-FSTD Issue 2, AMC11 FSTD(A).300, Guidance on high angle of attack/stall model evaluation and approach to stall for previously qualified FSTDs.

    FSTDs upgraded with UPRT modifications to meet FAA UPRT requirements (FAA NSP - Flight Simulation Training Device Qualification Guidance) but which also hold a qualification certificate issued by the CAA will be assessed by the CAA against CS-FSTD(A) Issue 2 requirements if requested by the operator. The CAA also reserves the right to assess modifications against these criteria where not requested.

    Already qualified FSTDs which will not be upgraded to meet CS-FSTD(A) Issue 2

    Requirements previously detailed in IN-2016/044 continue to apply to applicable FSTDs which are already qualified but will not be upgraded to meet Issue 2 criteria. This approach will remain in place until Regulation (EU) No.1178/2011, as amended, is updated with UPRT requirements, on 20 December 2019.

    • Part-ORO Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) and Guidance Material (GM) to permit provision of UPRT in FSTDs is contained in Annex II to ED Decision 2015/012/R. Guidance on applicable criteria is in GM4 ORO.FC220 and 230.
    • Operators must understand the capabilities and limitations of the FSTD to be used, especially when manoeuvre training might involve operating outside the normal flight envelope of the aeroplane with consequential negative training effects. The functionality of the Instructor Operating Station (IOS) for UPRT should also be considered.
    • The FSTD used for UPRT must be qualified to ensure that the training task objectives can be achieved without negative transfer of training. Full aerodynamic stall or other exercises outside the Validated Training Envelope must not be conducted.
    • FSTDs considered to be qualified for UPRT are Full Flight Simulators qualified to level C, CG, D or DG.
    • A level B Full Flight Simulator may become qualified for UPRT if equivalency to at least level C for the specific features needed for the task can be demonstrated in accordance with CS-FSTD(A) Appendix 8 to AMC1 FSTD(a).300 General Technical Requirements for FSTD Qualification Levels, and associated FSTD validation tests.
    • For FSTDs for which the CAA is the competent authority and which meet the qualification criteria for UPRT (defined in GM4 ORO.FC220 and 230), the CAA will annotate a specific training, testing and checking consideration on the FSTD qualification certificate. This consideration will state ‘Upset Prevention and Recovery Training (UPRT) is only to be conducted within the Validated Training Envelope’.
    • Operators are expected to assess FSTDs to ensure compliance with the AMC and appropriate consideration given to the GM.

    After 20 December 2019, FSTDs falling into this category will not be considered qualified to support any training, testing and/or checking of UPRT for which credit is sought. All applicable FSTD qualification certificates will be amended and reissued accordingly to indicate this.

    Further Information

    Further information from EASA on UPRT using FSTDs – https://www.easa.europa.eu/faq/44870 and https://www.easa.europa.eu/faq/47253.