Learning to fly
Once you have your licence in many cases you can qualify to add different classes, types or additional ratings. These are known as the privileges of your licence and determine when and what you are able to fly.
Adding a night rating or instrument rating (not every licence can have every rating e.g. an instrument rating cannot be added to a LAPL or NPPL) will allow you to fly at night or by using aircraft instruments if the aircraft is suitably equipped and approved. And with the right rating in place you may, for example, fly an aircraft with a variable pitched propeller, a turbo-charged engine, or with a retractable undercarriage.
Ratings can be added to your licence separately by undertaking an approved training course and, in most cases, by passing a skills test and must be kept up to date for as long as you wish to use the privileges that they allow.
If you are a new starter wanting to learn to fly your flying school can offer advice on training, licence types and ratings.
If you want the exact requirements and more detail then you can download the CAA publication: