RNAV (GNSS) Approach Operations

Information regarding RNAV (GNSS) Approach Operations for Air Navigation Service Providers, Aerodrome Licence Holders, and Aircraft Operators

Regulatory Information, Guidance and Application Processes

Approach Applications

Approach Applications which are classified as RNP Approach (APCH) in accordance with ICAO Doc 9613 Performance Based Navigation (PBN) Manual (and ICAO state Letter SP 65/4-10/53) give access to minima (on an Instrument Approach Procedure) designated as:

  • LNAV (Lateral Navigation) – This is a Non-Precision Approach with Lateral navigation guidance provided by Global Positioning System (GPS) and an Aircraft Based Augmentation System. (ABAS) Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) is a form of ABAS. 

  • LP (Localiser Performance) – This is a Non-Precision Approach with Lateral navigation guidance provided by GPS and a Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS).

  • LNAV/VNAV (Lateral Navigation / Vertical Navigation) - This is an Approach Procedure with Vertical Guidance (APV). The lateral navigation guidance is provided by GPS and ABAS in the same way as for LNAV. The vertical guidance is provided by a Barometric Altimeter. This type of approach is commonly known as APV/Baro VNAV.

  • LPV (Localiser Performance with Vertical Guidance) – This is an Approach Procedure with Vertical Guidance (APV). The Lateral and Vertical guidance is provided by GPS and SBAS.

The instrument approach procedures associated with RNP APCH are entitled RNAV (GNSS) to reflect that GNSS is the primary navigation system. With the inherent onboard performance monitoring and alerting provided by GNSS, the navigation specification qualifies as RNP, however these procedures pre-date PBN, so the chart name has remained as RNAV.

Approach Procedure with Vertical Guidance

The use of GNSS facilitates the use of Approach Procedure with Vertical Guidance (APV).

APV is defined in ICAO Doc 8168 as:

An instrument procedure which utilizes lateral and vertical guidance but does not meet the requirements established for precision approach and landing operations.

Satellite Based Augmentation System

Within Europe the Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS) is provided by the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS).

Other SBAS services provided in other regions of the world include:

  • Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) in the USA
  • MTSAT Satellite-based Augmentation System (MSAS) in Japan

RNP Authorisation Required (AR) APCH

RNP AR APCH is a “high-end” instrument approach navigation specification. RNP AR provides an added level of assurance over standard operations and as the designation indicates, a special Authorisation is Required.