• Good monitoring can make a difference. This clip summarises all the good strategies that could have reduced the likelihood of any of the incidents shown in the video from occurring.

  • A summary of additional good monitoring practices is abstracted from the "Monitoring Matters" document:

    • Stay in the loop by mentally flying the aircraft even when the autopilot or other pilot is flying the aircraft
    • Monitor the flight instruments just as you would when you are manually flying the aircraft
    • During briefings include ‘monitor me’ type comments to encourage intervention – ‘remind me if I haven’t asked for the after take-off checks’
    • Provide the occasional monitoring reminders e.g. – ‘make sure that the tail wind doesn't exceed 10 kt’
    • During flight the captain should ensure that the shared mental model remains intact. This can be achieved through:
      • application of TDODAR (Time, Diagnose, Options, Decide, Act/Assign, Review) (agree the plan).
      • expression of intent (I will be flying the descent at 200 kt)
      • Providing a situation update to the PM when he/she has been carrying out a non-monitoring task
    • Manage the workload
      • When the workload gets too high, prioritise which parameters to monitor – don’t multi-task for too long
      • When dealing with emergency situations ensure adequate time and space to enable the continuation of the monitoring tasks
      • Avoid programming the FMS at critical phases of flight
    • Mentally rehearse during low periods of workload, monitoring tasks that will occur in the next phase of flight
    • Make cross checking achievement of the autopilot targets a force of habit
    • Verbalise your observations or check lists (especially if single pilot)
    • At the end of the flight discuss how well the monitoring was carried out – did you both share the same plan
    • When the aircraft is carrying defects that are acceptable in the MELs consider the impact on the monitoring task – make a note (mental or otherwise) of the affected flight parameters, modes or systems that will require more attentive monitoring (discuss this during briefing)
    • When referring to charts/check lists/QRH hold them in a position that facilitates the scanning of flight parameters
    • The PF can put the A/C into a situation where it is unsafe but PM can stop it ‘Never whisper when you know it’s time to shout’