• To qualify for a touring motor glider (TMG) class rating, you must complete an appropriate training course at an approved training organisation (ATO) or registered training facility (RTF) until April 2018.

  • When do you need a rating?

    You must have a valid and appropriate class or type rating in order to do any flying other than flight instruction, skill tests or proficiency checks for the renewal of type or class ratings.

    This does not apply in the case of the LAPL, SPL or BPL.

    Ratings privileges

    If you hold a type or class rating, you can act as pilot on the class or type of aircraft specified in the rating. 

    Training and testing

  • Theoretical knowledge examinations must be taken at an ATO. The exams will have a different format depending on the aircraft type the rating is appropriate for:

    Aircraft type Exam format
    Multi-pilot aircraft Written exams made up of at least 100 multiple-choice questions spread across the main subject areas
    Single-pilot, multi-engine aircraft Written exams; the number of multiple-choice questions will depend on the complexity of the aircraft
    Single-engine aircraft Verbal exam conducted during the skill test to determine whether or not a satisfactory level of knowledge has been achieved
    Single-pilot aeroplanes classed as high performance aeroplanes Written exams made up of at least 100 multiple-choice questions spread across the main subject areas

    Theoretical examination crediting

    If you hold a type rating for an aircraft type with the privileges for either single-pilot or multi-pilot operations, then you will be fully credited for the theoretical knowledge requirements  when you apply to add the privilege for the other form of operation (single- or multi-pilot operations) on the same aircraft type. 

    At the end of your training course, you will need to pass a skill test with a suitably qualified examiner, in the relevant aircraft class or type, to demonstrate that you can competently carry out the procedures and manoeuvres that you have been taught, while acting as pilot in command (PIC).

    You must pass the skill test within 6 months of starting your training course. You must also apply for the issue of the rating within 6 months of the completion date of your skill test.

    In order to extend privileges to another variant of aeroplane within one class or type rating, the pilot must undertake differences or familiarisation training. In the case of variants within a type rating, the differences or familiarisation training shall include the relevant elements defined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Part-21.

    If the variant has not been flown within a period of 2 years following the differences training, further differences training or a proficiency check in that variant shall be required to maintain the privileges, except for types or variants within the single engine piston and TMG class ratings.

    The differences training shall be entered in the pilot's logbook or equivalent record and signed by the instructor as appropriate.  Some variants only need familiarisation whereas some need differences training.

    Guidance on differences training

    Variable Pitch (VP) Propellers (all propeller aeroplanes) 

    These systems make a significant difference to performance in all phases of flight. Mostly, the instruction in this section will be given to pilots converting from SEP aeroplanes with fixed pitch propellers to SEP or MEP aeroplanes with VP propellers and constant speed units (CSU). The system on some older types may not include a CSU and instructors must ensure that all of the system differences and handling techniques, introduced by the new type, are properly covered in the training given. 

    Differences Training completed, for this section, on an SEP aeroplane, does not provide equivalent qualification on MEP aeroplanes. 

    All Aeroplanes 

    Principle of operation and effect on performance; 

    System construction and function; 

    Propeller system limitations; 

    Engine limitations and instrumentation. 

    Operation of throttle, mixture and propeller controls, including pre-flight checks and normal handling during:

    • Start up and taxying;
    • Take-off and climb;
    • Cruise at various power settings and speeds;
    • Low speed handling and stall/spin recovery;
    • Approach and go-around;
    • Landing and shut down.

    In-flight failures, within the propeller system, including:

    • Loss of oil pressure;
    • Loss of governor control;
    • Overspeed;
    • Underspeed.

    Emergency handling, during: 

    • Engine failure after take-off/go-around;
    • Engine failure during other phases of flight, including approach and landing;
    • Effect of engine failure on glide performance.

    Emergency Handling Considerations for Multi-Engine Aeroplanes

    Engine failures after take-off including propeller feathering and effect of wind-mill drag; 

    Circuit and approach with one or more engines inoperative; 

    Go-around with one or more engines inoperative; 

    Landing with one or more engines inoperative. 

    Retractable Undercarriage 

    Differences Training completed, for this section, on an SEP aeroplane, does not provide equivalent qualification on MEP aeroplanes:

    • Principle and effect on performance;
    • System construction and function;
    • Limitations - raising, lowering and extended.
    • Operation including pre-flight checks and normal handling:
    • After take-off;
    • On approach/go-around and landing.

    In-flight system failures and emergency lowering. 

    Operation of undercarriage during:

    • Engine failure after take-off/go-around (Emergency raising - as applicable to type);
    • Engine failure during other phases of flight, including approach and landing.
    • Effect on glide performance.

    Considerations for MEP Aeroplanes:

    • Effect on performance - one or more engines inoperative.
    • Handling during approach and landing/go-around with one or more engines inoperative.
    • Effect on engine out allowance and landing committal height.

    Turbo/Supercharged Engine(s)

    Differences Training completed, for this section, on a SEP aeroplane, does not provide equivalent qualification on MEP Aeroplanes:

    • Principle and effect on performance, including cruise altitude;
    • System construction and function;
    • Engine limitations and instrumentation.

    Engine handling including pre-flight checks and normal operation during:

    • Start up and taxying;
    • Take-off and climb;
    • Cruise at various power settings and speeds;
    • Low speed handling and stall/spin recovery;
    • Approach and go-around;
    • Landing and shut down.
    • In-flight failures and emergency handling;
    • Single-Engine Stabilising Altitude (ME only).

    Cabin Pressurisation and Oxygen Systems

    Differences Training completed, for this section, on an SEP aeroplane, does not provide equivalent qualification on MEP aeroplanes:

    • Principle and effect on performance;
    • Construction;
    • System function including associated environmental heating and air conditioning systems;
    • Oxygen system - storage capacity, pre-flight checks, system function (passengers and crew);
    • Systems Limitations;
    • Human Limitations including hypoxia and period of useful consciousness.

    Operations at high altitude including:

    • Airspace classification;
    • Licence and rating privileges;
    • Rules of the Air;
    • Weather;
    • Air Navigation (BR Nav).

    Normal operation including pre-flight checks, setting and monitoring during:

    • Take-off and climb;
    • Cruise;
    • Descent;
    • Approach and Landing.
    • In-flight failures and emergency handling including:
      • Use of oxygen;
      • Emergency descent including terrain and ATC considerations;
      • Single Engine Stabilising Altitude (ME only).

    Tail Wheel

    Differences Training completed, for this section, on an SEP aeroplane, does not provide equivalent qualification on MEP aeroplanes:

    • Physical differences;
    • Loading and Effect of CG Position.
    • Dynamic differences and handling during:
    • Ground handling;
    • Starting and taxying;
    • Taking-off;
    • Engine failure during take-off;
    • Landings including 2-point “Wheelers” and 3-point landings (as applicable to type);
    • Crosswind operations;
    • Parking and mooring.
    • Landing and ground handling with one or more engines inoperative (ME only).

    Variants within a Type Rating

    • Weight and loading - normal, utility and aerobatic load categories;
    • Take-off and climb performance;
    • Cruise performance;
    • Landing performance;
    • Speeds for normal operation;
    • Speeds for emergency operation;
    • Airframe limitations;
    • Manoeuvre imitations and aerobatics;
    • Spinning;
    • Stall/Spin warning for protection systems;
    • Fuel system;
    • Engine systems and instrumentation;
    • Undercarriage system;
    • Electrical system (DC and AC);
    • Cabin and environmental system (including pressurisation);
    • Cockpit and cabin oxygen systems;
    • Caution and warning annunciator system;
    • Flight instrumentation;
    • EFIS and navigation systems;
    • Autopilot and trim system including pre-flight checks;
    • Other systems including pneumatic, vacuum and hydraulic;
    • Aerodynamic controls and handling characteristics;
    • Engine handling;
    • Flaps and lift/drag augmentation;
    • Other systems particular to type;
    • Emergency procedures.

    Single Lever Power Control (SLPC) Aeroplanes

    Differences training, for this section, on a single-engine aeroplane does not provide equivalent qualification on multi-engine aeroplanes. 

    Engine and Ancillaries

    • Fuel type
    • Principles, construction and function
    • Gearbox
    • Turbo/super chargers
    • FADEC / Engine Control Unit (ECU)
    • Lubrication, oil type, checking and topping up
    • Cooling - coolant type, checking and topping up 

    Propeller

    • Propeller principles
    • Constant Speed Unit (CSU) and governor
    • Care of prop. and ground handling
    • System monitoring and control
    • Power control lever, FADEC and ECU integration
    • Standby/manual over-ride power control (if applicable)
    • Engine information displays
    • Auxiliary system displays
    • Annunciator panels, caution and warning systems

    Electrical System

    • Electrical system layout, voltage and limitations
    • Alternator system
    • Battery capacity
    • Circuit breakers
    • Distribution, bus bars and switching
    • Use of ground power units

    Fuel System

    • Fuel quantity distribution and selections
    • Fuel consumption
    • Fuel Labelling
    • Re-fuelling supervision

    Loading and Performance

    • Engine Mass and aircraft loading differences
    • Take off and Climb Performance
    • Cruise performance
    • Fuel consumption and endurance
    • Landing performance

    Handling

    • Starting and shutting down
    • Engine master switch
    • Pre-flight checks and ECU testing
    • Normal operations
    • Fire and Emergency handling
    • Use of main power control lever
    • Use of standby / manual over-ride power controls (if applicable)
    • Power settings and speeds for normal and emergency operations
    • Take-off / landing configuration differences

    and review of Pilots' Operating Handbook

    Converting from SLPC Aeroplanes;

    Engine and System Components, Construction, Layout and Function:

    • Power control indications
    • Fuel system
    • Ignition system - where applicable
    • Carburettor heat/alternate air control - where applicable
    • Theory of carburettor icing
    • Mixture control
    • Theory and need for manual mixture control
    • Ignition system
    • Theory of magneto ignition - where applicable
    • Fixed pitch propeller theory
    • Engine cooling

    Operation and Engine Handling

    • Performance and loading considerations
    • Range and endurance
    • Pre-flight inspection
    • Starting taxying
    • Power and function checks
    • Take-off and climb
    • Cruise, including fuel system handling and fuel consumption
    • Use of carburettor heat control
    • Mixture leaning using mixture control
    • Engine handling during descent, approach and landing
    • Shutdown

    Limitations

    • System limitations for despatch
    • Operating limitations during flight
    • Considerations for shutdown

    In-Flight Failures and Emergency Handling

    • Engine failures including memory and checklist items
    • Engine overspeed in descent
    • Engine fire on the ground / in the air
    • Other emergency checklist procedures

    Electronic Flight Instruments System (EFIS)

    Airborne training in the use of Integrated EFIS demands considerable attention of both instructor and pilot, often at the expense of lookout and flight safety. It is recommended that this training be carried out with an appropriate Part Task Trainer, FNPT or other STD. In any event, maximum use should be made of any available videos, manufacturers' or agents' computer based training aids and programmes.

    System overview

    • System components and sub-systems
    • Sub-systems arrangement and inputs - including (but not limited to;
      • Pilot/Static and Air Data Computer (ADC)
      • Compass and magnetometer
      • Attitude and Heading Reference System (AHRS)
      • Avionics computer(s)
    • Power supply
    • Sub-system principles, construction and limitations System Function
    • Instruments
    • Main and alternative power supplies
    • System electrical demands
    • Communication radios and audio panel
    • Transponder
    • VHF navigation Radios
    • GPS and RNAV functionality and approval status
    • ADF and DME installations
    • Autopilot and flight director
    • Traffic information systems
    • Terrain data systems
    • Weather radar and data-link systems

    Normal Operations

    • Switching on, system initialisation and alignment
    • Test modes and function
    • Cautions and warnings system and display
    • Display brightness and control
    • Display modes, layout and available information
    • Flight instruments display
    • Engine Instruments
    • Use of communications radios,
    • Use of transponder system, altitude encoding and traffic information system, aircraft identification (Mode S) and mode of use.
    • Use of VHF navigation systems,
    • Use of ADF and DME,
    • Use of GPS and RNAV functions
    • Navigation displays
    • Instrument approach operations (for RNAV instrument approach operations see CAP 773)
    • Autopilot and Flight Director selection and control functions,

    Abnormal Operations

    • Sub system / system input malfunction
    • Screen failure
    • Composite, backup or reversionary display function
    • Radio failure and emergency operation
    • Electrical failures, fire and shut-down
    • Flight by reference to standby instruments
    • Aircraft system cautions and warnings
    • EFIS message advisories

    Differences training in Single Pilot aeroplanes with Electronic flight instrumentations systems (EFIS)

    Increasingly, single-pilot aircraft are being fitted with digital Electronic Flight Instrumentation Systems (EFIS) consisting of electronic 'glass instruments' and integrated digital avionics displays of widely varying complexity and capability. These systems present a significant change from conventional, mechanical flight instruments in the way the information is presented and the interpretation of these systems requires a thorough understanding by the pilot. 

    For the purposes of this requirement, an EFIS display requiring differences training is an electronic presentation of the primary flight instruments that presents gyroscopic instrument, pressure instrument and navigation information that is used by the pilot as a primary reference for control of the aircraft in flight. 

    Differences training requires both theoretical knowledge and training on an appropriate training device or an aeroplane. The instructors and training providers who may give the training are detailed in subsequent paragraphs. 

    Pilots converting to an EFIS equipped aeroplane for the first time, within the Single Engine Piston Class Rating, are required to complete differences training to the satisfaction of an appropriately qualified Class or Instrument Rating Instructor or Flight Instructor. Those pilots with logbook evidence to show that they have been operating these aircraft as pilot in command, prior to September 9th 2010, the issue date of an AIC on the topic, are exempt from this requirement. 

    Pilots converting to another EFIS equipped aeroplane within the privileges of other type or class ratings are strongly advised to complete similar differences training. When converting either to or from EFIS within a single-pilot type rating, pilots should attend a Training Organisation approved to conduct type-rating training courses on the particular aircraft type and variant.

    Converting between different EFIS installations

    Pilots converting to another Integrated EFIS display should obtain further differences training, whether or not the same manufacturer produces the new system. Familiarisation training should be sufficient for FIs or CRI/TRIs who are fully qualified to teach all applied instrument flying and who are already trained on another Integrated EFIS system.

    Converting from EFIS to Mechanical Instruments

    Pilots trained in using Integrated EFIS displays but not trained on mechanical flight instruments, are likely to have established a scan pattern quite different from the techniques required by a conventional, mechanical instrument layout. These pilots are strongly advised to obtain differences training on conventional instruments, including selective radial scan techniques, before flying an aircraft with conventional mechanical instrumentation. EFIS can provide very precise information, which requires little interpretation, as opposed to conventional instrument displays, which require considerable interpretation and different scan techniques. A key element in this type of training, on whatever system, is ensuring the pilot fully understands what information is available, what is being displayed and how to interpret the display correctly.


    EASA guidance for type rating holders wishing to fly different series/variants

  • Revalidation and renewal of ratings

  • Class and type ratings are valid for 1 year, counted from the end of the calendar month in which you completed your skill test, with the exception of single-pilot single-engine class ratings which are valid for 2 years, counted from the end of the calendar month in which you completed your skill test.

    Renewal

    If your rating expires, you will need to take refresher training as determined by an ATO and pass a proficiency check with a suitably qualified examiner. 

     

    Renewal of class and type ratings: refresher training

    (a) Paragraph (b)(1) of FCL.740 determines that if a class or type rating has lapsed, the applicant shall take refresher training at an ATO. The objective of the training is to reach the level of proficiency necessary to safely operate the relevant type or class of aircraft.

    The amount of refresher training needed should be determined on a case-by-case basis by the ATO, taking into account the following factors:

    • the experience of the applicant;
    • the amount of time elapsed since the privileges of the rating were last used;
    • the complexity of the aircraft;
    • whether the applicant has a current rating on another aircraft type or class;
      and
    • where considered necessary, the performance of the applicant during a proficiency check for the rating in an FSTD or an aircraft of the relevant type or class.

    It should be expected that the amount of training needed to reach the desired level of competence will increase with the time elapsed since the privileges of the rating were last used.

    Once the ATO has determined the needs of the applicant, it should develop an individual training programme based on the ATO's approved course for the rating, focussing on the aspects where the applicant has shown the greatest needs.

    Theoretical knowledge instruction should be included as necessary; such as for type-specific system failures in complex aircraft. The performance of the applicant should be reviewed during the training and additional instruction provided where necessary to reach the standard required for the proficiency check.

    After successful completion of the training, the ATO should provide a training completion certificate to the applicant, describing the training provided. The training completion certificate should be presented to the Examiner prior to the
    Proficiency check. Following the successful renewal of the rating the completion certificate and examiner report form should be submitted to the competent authority, together with the relevant application form if the examiner cannot sign the certificate of revalidation in Section XII of the UK-issued licence.

    Note: Licence holders, ATOs and examiners are reminded that examiners are only authorised to sign the certificate of validation in Section XII (page 5 onwards) of a UK-issued licence when the rating is still shown on page 4 (Section XII) of the licence.

    If the rating is no longer printed on page 4 (Section XII) of the licence, but appears in the section “ratings previously held by holder”, the rating is no longer included in the licence and cannot be reinstated by an examiner. In those circumstances application for renewal of the rating must e made to the CAA so that the rating may be made valid by being included in the licence again.

  • To revalidate the rating you must complete the following:

    • Pass a proficiency check in a touring motor glider with an examiner. The proficiency check must take place within the 3 months immediately before the rating's expiry date; or
    • 12 hours of flight time in a touring motor glider within the 12 months preceding the rating's expiry date, including the following:
      • 6 hours as pilot-in-command (PIC)
      • 12 take-offs and landings
      • a training flight of at least 1 hour with a flight instructor or a class rating instructor. If you have already completed a proficiency check or skill test in another type or class of aeroplane, you will not have to complete this training flight

    Note: If you hold valid ratings written on your licence for both TMG and SEP, when you revalidate you may use the same flight time for both and ensure both ratings are signed up.

    Revalidation by experience

    If you are revalidating your TMG by experience and are flying in a European Member State, please note that Certificate of Revalidation held on a licence issued by the UK cannot be endorsed by a non-UK EASA examiner.

    TMG revalidation by experience can only be signed in a UK issued licence by an examiner holding a valid UK issued Part-FCL examiner certificate or a Flight Instructor with the privileges of FCL.945.

     


  • How to apply

    • If you hold a UK issued professional licence with a valid Class One Medical Certificate, you can apply using our e-Licensing system.

      Please note that if you are claiming cross credits under Part FCL.740H(3) you need to apply with the paper forms

    • If you are applying via the UK Military Accreditation Scheme, you need to download CAA 5014 and SRG 2133 then apply using our e-Licensing system.

    For all other routes, please apply via our postal application forms with all other required associated documents listed in the guidance of the application forms ( such as ID and logbooks):

    • Form SRG 2199
    • Form SRG 1107 / 1119D or the course completion certificate provided by the ATO
    • Form SRG 1112 where base training has been completed with a different ATO 
    • Form SRG 1157 for single pilot aeroplanes
    • Form SRG 1158 for multi pilot aeroplanes
    • Form SRG 2142 for applicants claiming credits from holding an ICAO licence, for initial issue, revalidation or renewal

    If you are applying on the basis of training and testing conducted by a non UK approved EASA Part FCL Approved Training Organisation you must send copies of the following:

    • the ATO's PART ORA approval certificate;
    • the examiners licence, medical and authorisation certificate;
    • return email confirmation from testnotification@caa.co.uk

    If you are applying on the basis of a Third country ICAO licence conversion you will need to send us:

    • the original Third country ICAO licence and validating medical certificate;
      or
    • a copy certified by the Head of Training of an Approved Training Organisation (ATO), or the holder of a registration for a Registered Training Facility (RTF), or a UK approved examiner
    • original logbooks or electronic logbooks 
    • Electronic logbooks are acceptable for all types of application provided they have been printed, signed and dated.

      If your ICAO licence does not show the validity dates of the ratings, please submit certified copies of logbook pages showing the rating validity and test dates.
    • If you hold a UK issued professional licence with a valid Class One Medical Certificate, you can apply using our e-Licensing system

    • If you are applying via the UK Military Accreditation Scheme, you need to download CAA 5014 and then apply using our e-Licensing system

    For all other routes, please apply via our postal application forms with all other required associated documents listed in the guidance of the application forms ( such as ID and logbooks):

    • Form SRG 2199
    • Form SRG 1107/1119D or the course completion certificate provided by the ATO
    • Form SRG 1112 where base training has been completed with a different ATO
    • Form SRG 1157 for single pilot aeroplanes
    • Form SRG 1158 for multi pilot aeroplanes
    • Form SRG 1119 B for revalidation by test
    • Form SRG 1119C for renewal
    • Form SRG 1119E for revalidation by experience
    • Form SRG 2142 for applicants claiming credits from holding an ICAO licence, for initial issue, revalidation or renewal

     


    If you are applying on the basis of training and testing conducted by a non UK approved EASA Part FCL Approved Training Organisation you must send copies of the following:

    • the ATO's PART ORA approval certificate;
    • the examiners licence, medical and authorisation certificate;
    • return email confirmation from testnotification@caa.co.uk

    If you are applying on the basis of a Third country ICAO licence conversion you will need to send us:

    • the original Third country ICAO licence and validating medical certificate; or
    • a copy certified by the Head of Training of an Approved Training Organisation (ATO), or the holder of a registration for a Registered Training Facility (RTF), or a UK approved examiner
    • original logbooks or electronic logbooks 
    • Electronic logbooks are acceptable for all types of application provided they have been printed, signed and dated.

      If your ICAO licence does not show the validity dates of the ratings, please submit certified copies of logbook pages showing the rating validity and test dates.

  • Related Information

    How to find a UK examiner or UK approved school

    EASA ratings list and flight simulators